Dr. Raffaele received his B.A. in philosophy from Princeton University and his M.D. from Drexel University Medical School in 1989. He trained at The New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center and was formerly a clinical assistant professor of medicine at Dartmouth Medical School. Dr. Raffaele is board certified in internal medicine, a member of the Endocrine Society, and a diplomat of the American Board of Anti-Aging Medicine. In 1997, he co-founded PhysioAge Medical Group, where he exclusively practiced age-management medicine, focusing on personalized hormone optimization and physiological age assessment.